Sunday, April 23, 2017

Contribution of Swami Dayanand towards the understanding of the Vedas.

Contribution of Swami Dayanand towards the understanding of the Vedas.

Dr Vivek Arya

Swami Dayanand, the founder of Aryasamaj dedicated his whole life towards the propagation of the message of the Vedas. Swami Dayanand completed the commentary on Yajurveda and up-to the 7th mandala of the Rigveda. He also published Rigvedadibhashya-bhumika [preface to the four Vedas] as introduction to the Vedas. Before Swami Dayanand advent, Vedas were considered as a book of cumbersome rituals confined to the priest class.Swami ji not even made the Vedas accessible to the common man but also made their interpretation useful and worthy for everyone. He established certain landmarks for the understanding of the Vedas. This article is dedicated towards the understanding of contribution of Swami Dayanand to the Vedas.

Rigveda-10 mandalas, 1028 sukatas and 10552 mantras.

Yajurveda-40 Chapters and 1975 mantras.

Samaveda- 3 Archikas and 1873 mantras.

Atharveda- 20 kandas, 731 Suktas and 5977 mantras.

There are total 20,377 mantras in all four Vedas.

Landmarks established by Swami Dayanand

The authenticity of the Vedas

Swami Dayanand says that the Vedas are self sufficiently authoritative being the creation of the God. The Vedas being the perfect knowledge of God is not dependent on other man made texts. The texts other than the Vedas are considered true only if they are in accordance with the Vedas. Swami Dayanand in Satyarth Prakash writes that

“Of these [books other than the Vedas] too, those which appear to be contradictory to the Vedas, should be rejected; for the Vedas being created by the God, are infallible and self-sufficiently authoritative, that is to say, the Vedas are their own authority.”

Thus, Swami Dayanand established the landmark of supreme and self testified authority of the Vedas.

Revelation and the Rishis

Swami ji said that God is all knowing. So, he revealed his supreme knowledge of Vedas for the benefit of whole mankind. Swami ji said that the four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharveda were revealed in the conscience of the four Rishis Agni, Vayu, Aditya and Angira respectively by God.  God is all powerful and all pervading. So, he does not need mouth or vocal organs to reveal his knowledge. The four seers were not composer of the Vedas. They only realized and expounded the meaning of the Vedic verse. Thus, the Vedas are self authoritative true knowledge of God revealed to the four Rishis.

The Nirukta by Yaskacharya defines Rishi as one who sees or understands the meaning of the mantra.  Rishi is not one who created mantra but who realized the meaning of the mantra.

Thus, Swami Dayanand established the landmark that the Vedas were not composed by the four Rishis but realized by the four Rishis. God is the ultimate composer of the Vedas.

No History in the Vedas

One of the biggest achievement of Swami Dayanand was to establish this fact that Vedas are not History books just like Bible or Quran. Swami ji first established this fact that the four Vedas were revealed with the beginning of Human life. So, no question of inclusion of history appears in front of the Vedas. They were not created after passing of certain passage of time just like the Abrahamic beliefs. This confusion regarding History in Vedas arises due to misunderstanding of the Vedic words. There are certain words like Visvamitra, Vasistha, Urvashi etc. in the Vedas. There is an obsession among the Indian Acharyas like Sayana, Mahidhara and other Western indologists to impose history in Vedas using these words. To interpolate history using Vedic words lead to lot of confusions. Certain mantra seems to be promoting animal sacrifice, black magic, obscenity, polygamy etc. due to historical misinterpretation of the Vedas. Thus, this misinterpretation brought a bad name to the Vedas. Swami Dayanand established that there are three classes of meaning in the embellishment of language. They are Yaugika, Yogrurhi and Rurhi. Yaugika signifies the meaning of its root. Rurhi is the common name of definite concrete object. Yogrurhi is a combination of the both. Rishis in Vedic times regards Vedic terms to be Yaugika and Yogrurhi only. While the later age Acharyas regards them as Rurhi only. Swami Dayanand followed the way of ancient Rishis. He proved that the real sense of Vedas could only be reached by considering their root meaning.

Thus, Swami Dayanand established the landmark that there is no history in the Vedas.

The source of all True Knowledge and Sciences

Swami Dayanand is regarded as first scholar in modern times who welcomed the modern sciences. Before him it was believed that Science and Religion are enemies. Swami Dayanand established that they are allies not enemies. Swami ji in his work Rigvedadibhashya-bhumika proved that Vedas are the source of all true knowledge. He said that there is no self contradiction in the Vedas. Swami Dayanand quoted different mantras teaching us science of Astronomy, Medicine, Telegraphy etc. He considered that Vedas possess all seeds of knowledge embedded in them.

Maxmuller commented on Swami Dayanand's observation of science in Vedas as, “To him (Swami Dayanand) not only was everything contained in the Vedas perfect truth, but he went a step further, and by the most incredible interpretations succeeded in persuading himself and others that everything worth knowing, even the most recent inventions of modern science, were alluded in the Vedas.”

[Ref. F. Maxmuller,1884, Biographical Essays,Longman Green and Company, London,P.31]

Thus, Swami Dayanand established the landmark that the Vedas bear all true knowledge and Sciences.

Vedas and Monotheism

One of the most revolutionary landmark established by Swami Dayanand was that the Vedas preach Monotheism. It means only one God. Swami Ji proved that in Vedas God is one and he has countless qualities. He is called by different names .These names also apply on different material entities.

Take an example from first mantra of Rigveda.

ॐ अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य देवमृत्तिजम् । होतारं रत्नधातरम् ॥१॥

God is mentioned in this mantra by word ‘Agni’. Most of Acharyas and western indologists interpret Agni as materialistic fire. Swami Dayanand interprets using ancient method as the source of illumination of all noble activity.

In similar way Swami Dayanand interprets different words like Agni, Vayu , Aditya, Savita, Indra, Varna etc. as different names of one God as well as materialistic names. This interpretation was based on the method adopted by Ancient Rishis using Nirukta (Vedic Philology). This helps not even in establishing the fact that Vedas preach Monotheism but also there is no History in the Vedas. There is again a misconception that Swami Dayanand adopted the monotheistic concept in Vedas from the ideology of Islam and Christianity. It is again a myth because there are multiple mantras in Vedas supporting Monotheism.

Few Vedic Mantras supporting Monotheism in Vedas

Yajurveda 40.1:

This entire world is embedded within and managed by the One and Only One Ishwar. Never dare do any injustice or desire riches through unjust means. Instead follow the righteous path and enjoy His bliss. After all He alone is source of all bliss!

Rigveda 10.48.1:

Ishwar alone is omnipresent and manager of entire universe. He alone provides victory and eternal cause of world. All souls should look up only to Him in same manner as children look up to their Father. He alone provides for our sustenance and bliss.

Rigveda 10.49.1

Ishwar alone provides true knowledge to truth seekers. He alone is promoter of knowledge and motivates virtuous people into noble actions to seek bliss. He alone is the creator and manager of the world. Hence never worship anyone else except one and only Ishwar.

Atharvaveda 13.4.16-21

He is neither two, nor three, nor four, nor five, nor six, nor seven, nor eight, nor nine, nor ten. He is, on contrary, One and Only One. There is no Ishwar except Him. All devtas reside within Him and are controlled by him. So He alone should be worshiped, none else.

Thus, Swami Dayanand established this landmark that Vedas preach Monotheism.

Vedas and Devta

Swami Dayanand solved one of the biggest riddle regarding Vedas. It was assumed that the Vedas preach bahudevtavad or multiple Gods. After establishing the fact that Vedas preach Monotheism Swami ji solved the mystery of multiple devtas in Vedas. Vedas speak about multiple devtas like Indra, Vayu, Agni, Varuna etc. The earlier Acharyas and western indologists established the concept of Polytheism on basis of multiple devtas in Vedas. Swami dayanand interpreted the true meaning of the word ‘Devta

He writes that devta word can be used for any entity who provides us with knowledge, wisdom, peace, happiness and light. This interpretation was based on Nirukta 7/15. Now the following entities qualify to be called as devta as per Vedic philosophy.

1. The one and only almighty God who provides us everything.

2. King or Ruler who provides security and welfare.

3. Parents or Caretaker who provide all means of help and guidance.

4. Guru or Teacher who provides all sorts of knowledge and wisdom.

5. Traders who bring prosperity to the kingdom.

6. Five elements of nature who provide us all comforts like Sun, Water, Air, Earth and Sky.

Overall any entity which help us, benefit us in our life is Devta. So, all are respectable for us but the only one who is to be worshiped is the one almighty God.

Thus, Swami Dayanand established this landmark that Vedas speak of worship of only one God and respect to all Devtas.

Vedas and Idol worship

Swami Dayanand was the only scholar in modern times who established this fact that the Vedas do not support idol worship. Swami ji established that God is formless and omnipresent according to the Vedas. He could not be confined to small idols and an idol cannot represent him. Swami ji advocated worship of formless God through Stuti,Prarthna and Upasana.

Swami Dayanand provided with different mantras from Vedas like Yajurveda 32/3 : "Na tasya Pratima asti" means "There is no image of Him."

Swami Dayanand faced stiff resistance on his stand against idolatry especially from the Hindu society. Ironically he was not the only one to raise voice against idolatry. Before him Adi Shankracharya, Kabir, Nanak, Dadu, Basava etc. raised voice against idolatry analysing its demerits.

Thus, Swami Dayanand established this landmark that Vedas do not support idol worship.

The Vedas and the Yajna

Swami Dayanand revolutionary teachings related to Vedas was to dispel the myth that the Vedas support animal sacrifice in Yajnas. The middle age Acharyas like Sayana, Mahidhara and the western indologists were very keen to prove that the Vedas support animal sacrifice. This led to lot of confusion among the readers of the Vedas. Swami Dayanand revolutionized this belief that Vedas support non violence. Due to the vested interests or the erroneous understandings, these writers made baseless pronouncements regarding animal killing in the Vedas.

 Swami Dayanand established that the Cow is considered as adhvara (never to be killed) and aghanya (never to be hurt) in the Vedas. He also clarified the true meaning of Ashvamedha is not to kill horse but to serve the nation. Gomedha is not to kill Cow but to sanctify grain, body parts, rays and the earth. Narmedha is not to kill human being but to do ritualistic last rites after death.

I will like to quote Mahabharta shantiparva 26/59 which says that

"It is only the villains who have brought in the corruption of liquor and non-vegetarianism in Yajna. The Vedas have no where indicated it."

Thus, Swami Dayanand established this landmark teaching that the Vedas no where endorse meat eating and animal sacrifice in the Yajnas.

Right to Vedic Learning

Swami Dayanand biggest gift to the whole humanity is the right to learn Vedas irrespective of caste, creed or religion. During his days it was widely prevalent on our country that the shudras and women were forbidden to study or to even hear the Vedas. After centuries of discrimination Swami Dayanand opened the door of Vedas for everyone. Swami Ji paved the way for the emancipation of women and upliftment of the dalits . He clearly said that every human being has the right to study the Vedas.

The self testimony of the Vedas will prove his stand.

Yajurveda 26 /2 God says O! Humans i gift you with this blissful knowledge of Vedas for all Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya as well as Shudra. This knowledge is for benefit of everyone.

[God do not deny the knowledge of Vedas for Shudras. Shudras enjoys equal right to read Vedas as a Brahman. ]

Atharveda 19/62/1 I pray to God that O God! Let all Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras glorify me.

[Vedas do not discriminate between different classes.They consider everyone as equal.]

Yajurveda 18/46 says that O God make me so gentle that all Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras have affection for me.

[Vedas speak of good relations with all four classes]

Rigveda 5/60/5 says There is no one superior or inferior in the Vedas. All are equal just like brothers.All should help each other to attain the pleasures of this as well as the other world.

[This mantra considers all humans as equal irrespective of their duties.]

Swami Dayanand was the first person to publish the translation of the Vedas in Hindi and the credit of making the Vedas accessible to one and all, goes to him.

Thus, Swami ji established the landmark of

                                                    “Vedas for everyone”.

I will like to conclude this article by the comments of Sadhu T.L.Vasvani

“Swami Dayanand was in the first place, India's eye opener to the wisdom of the Vedas. I know none in modern India who was a so great a scholar as a Swami ”

Inputs from

Rigvedadibhashyabhumika by Swami Dayananad.

Satyarth Prakash by Swami Dayanand.

The Vedas by Dr Ramprakash

Aryasamaj and the Vedic worldview.

Vedon ka Yatarth Swarup by Dharamdev vidyamartnand

Arsh jyoti by Ramnath vedalankar

Pashu Yagya Mimansa by Vishvanath Vedalankar

Vedon ko jane by Dr Vivek Arya

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Lesson from the History of Assam

Lesson from the History of Assam

Dr Vivek Arya

Assam rulers in 13th century

Assam the state of Brahmaputra and beautiful forests was ruled by Hindu Kings for centuries. It was only in 13 century when Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked Assam. He was helped in his conquest by a converted Hindu. He crossed the River Testa stone bridge and entered Assam. He asked the King of Kamrup for troops and supplies. The Assamese king delayed, so an impatient Bakhtiyar decided to carry on by himself. The Turks raped and looted their way through the mountains of Darjeeling and Sikkim before entering Tibet. Here he faced stiff resistance. With supply lines stretched, Bakhtiyar decided to retreat but his army was harassed by guerrilla attacks as it made its way back through the mountain passes. Supplies were so short that the Turks were forced to eat some of their horses.
[Ref. Nitish Sengupta, Land of two rivers, Penguin, 2011]

When the retreating armies finally reached the Testa, they found that the Assamese had destroyed the bridge and laid a trap. In the end most of the Turks were killed by the Assamese or drowned in a desperate attempt to cross the fast-flowing river. Bakhtiyar was trapped like a mice in cage. Finally he killed bulls to make their boat and somehow crossed Testa sitting on them. Bakhtiyar reached Devkot with only hundred of his soldiers.He was assassinated by his own companion Ali Mardan.
The wise rulers in 13th Century saved Assam from Islamic rule. This defeat of Bakhtiyar was remembered for long time. For the next 500 years no one dared to enter the difficult terrain of Assam.

Assam rulers in 17th Century

In 17th century Ajan Fakir, born Shah Miran, a Sufi of Chistiya clan came from Baghdad to settle in the Sibisagar area of Assam. His main aim was to reform, reinforce and stabilize Islam in the region of Assam. He acquired the nickname Azan came from his habit of calling Azan. He married an Ahom woman of high social stature and settled at Gorgaon, near Sibisagar town. His all attempts in earlier life failed to convert Hindus to Islam. In the end he used an old Sufi trick. He authored two forms of devotional songs Zikir and Zari. These songs were composed of teaching of Quran as well as they have striking similarities with the teachings of Srimanta Sankardeva , the 16th-century saint-scholar from Assam.Hindus considered these songs as teachings of Sankardeva while Azan Sufi was preaching Islam in disguise. This tricked worked. Azan Fakir gained many Hindus disciples. He later converted them to Islam. The news of his success reached the ears of the King. The king was reported that Azan was a secret agent of Mughal rulers of Delhi. King ordered to pluck the eyes of Azan. He was punished by removing his eyes. His disciples went one step ahead.A story of miracle was propagated that the Pir had two earthen pots brought into which he let his “two eyes drop”. This was again an old trick of Sufis to convert any mishap into a miracle to gain disciples.

Soon, an accident happened with the King. Some fellow adviser said to King that this accident was caused due to curse by the innocent fakir. King apologized and made land grants to Ajan fakir at Sovaguri Chapari, near Sibsagar and had a matha built for him. The king patronage made Azan fakir a local hero. He gained thousands of disciples to convert to Islam. After his death his place became a majar on the bank of Brahmaputra . Now every year on Ajan Pir’s Dargah an annual urs is held.Thousands of Hindus as well as Muslims throng the place to pay respect to the faqir.

Take Home Message

What an Islamic sword was unable to do in 13th century was accomplished by a Sufi. Islam was deeply rooted on the heart of Assam by treachery and trickery. Whose fault was this? In my opinion the fault was of advisers to the King. They misguided the King. They made the King ignorant about the Truth. They must have taught that all such tales of miracles are superstitions. The Vedic Philosophy of Hinduism is not even superior but also self sufficient to guide us. We do not need to import any foreign thought or idea to satisfy our religious quest.

Alas! the mistake could have been rectified!

Friday, April 21, 2017

हमारे गौरवशाली इतिहास का एक प्रेरणादायक पृष्ठ

हमारे गौरवशाली इतिहास का एक प्रेरणादायक पृष्ठ
डॉ विवेक आर्य
भारत विश्व का संभवत एक मात्र ऐसा देश होगा जहाँ का इतिहास उस देश के इतिहासकारों ने नहीं अपितु विदेशी इतिहासकारों ने लिखा है। इन पक्षपाती इतिहासकारों ने गौरी , गजनी और अकबर को महान लिखकर भारतीयों को हीन भावना से ग्रस्त करने का प्रयास किया । भारतीय इतिहास में अनेक ऐसे प्रसंग मिलते है जिन्हें पढ़कर पाठक अपने हमारे देशभक्त वीरों पर गर्व करेंगे। उन महान वीरों में से एक हथे नरसिम्हा देव प्रथम। आप ओड़िसा के शासक थे। सन 1243 में बंगाल के मेदिनापुर में आपका बंगाल के शासक तुगहन खान से सामना हुआ। युद्ध रणनीति में कुशल राजा ने अपनी सेनाओं को एक घने जंगल में छिपा दिया और मुसलमानों की सेना की प्रतीक्षा करने लगे। तुगहन खान आश्वस्त हो गया कि नरसिम्हा देव की सेना भाग गई है। इसलिए उसने अपनी सेना को आराम करने का आदेश दे दिया। छापामार रणनीति का पालन करते हुए तुगहन खान ने आराम करती सेना पर नरसिम्हा देव ने हमला कर दिया। उसकी सेना में भगदड़ मच गई। बड़ी कठिनाई से तुगहन खान ने अपनी भागकर जान बचाई।
सन 1247 में बंगाल सूबे का नया गवर्नर इख़्तियार नियुक्त हुआ। उसने अपना प्रभाव बढ़ाने के लिए फिर से ओड़िसा पर चढ़ाई कर दी। उसने पूरी का मंदिर घेर लिया। इस बार नरसिम्हा देव ने बड़ी दूर की रणनीति बनाई। उन्होंने अपना संदेशवाहक भेज कर इख़्तियार को सन्देश दिया कि उन्हें अपनी हार स्वीकार है। वे सामूहिक रूप से इस्लाम स्वीकार करने और पूरी के मंदिर को सौंपने के लिए तैयार है। तुर्क सेना यह सुनते ही खुशी के मारे नशे में डूब गई। इतने में पूरी के मंदिर की घंटियां बजने लगी। यह राजा नरसिम्हा देव का गुप्त ईशारा था। ओड़िया सेना ने अप्रत्याशित छापामार हमला कर इख़्तियार और उसकी सेना का बंगाल तक खदेड़ दिया। इस विजय के उपलक्ष में राजा नरसिम्हा देव ने कोणार्क सूर्य मंदिर का निर्माण कर इस विजय को चिरस्थायी बनाया। इस मंदिर में राजा नरसिम्हा देव को हाथी पर बैठ कर एक विदेशी मेहमान से जिराफ रूपी उपहार लेते हुए दिखाया गया है।
मुसलमानों ने दो बार एक ही हिन्दू राजा से मुँह की खाई। इतिहास की यह प्रेरणादायक घटना न किसी इतिहास पुस्तक में देखने को मिलती है। न ही इस पर कोई वृत्तचित्र बना है। खेद है ऐसे प्रेरणादायक एतिहासिक घटना के स्थान पर हमें अकबर महान आदि को पढ़ाया जाता है।

वास्को दी गामा: एक खोजी नाविक अथवा एक ईसाई समुद्री डाकू

(चित्र में वास्को दी गामा को जमोरिअन राजा से प्रथम बार मिलते हुए दिखाया गया है)

वास्को दी गामा: एक खोजी नाविक अथवा एक ईसाई समुद्री डाकू

डॉ विवेक आर्य

हमारे देश में पढ़ाई जाने वाली किसी भी इतिहास पुस्तक को उठाकर देखिये। वास्को दी गामा को भारत की खोज करने का श्रेय देते हुए इतिहासकार उसके गुणगान करते दिखेंगे। उस काल में जब यूरोप से भारत के मध्य व्यापार केवल अरब के माध्यम से होता था। उस पर अरबवासियों का प्रभुत्व था। भारतीय मसालों और रेशम आदि की यूरोप में विशेष मांग थी। पुर्तगालवासी वास्को दी गामा समुद्र के रास्ते अफ्रीका महाद्वीप का चक्कर लगाते हुए भारत के कप्पाड तट पर 14, मई, 1498 कालीकट, केरल पहुँचा। केरल का यह प्रदेश समुद्री व्यापार का प्रमुख केंद्र था। स्थानीय निवासी समुद्र तट पर एकत्र होकर गामा के जहाज को देखने आये क्यूंकि गामा के जहाज की रचना अरबी जहाजों से अलग थी।

केरल के उस प्रदेश में शाही जमोरियन राजपरिवार के राजा समुद्रीन का राज्य था। राजा अपने बड़े से शाही राजमहल में रहता था। गामा अपने साथियों के साथ राजा के दर्शन करने गया। रास्ते में एक हिन्दू मंदिर को चर्च समझ कर गामा और उसके साथी पूजा करने चले गए। वहां स्थित देवीमूर्ति को उन्होंने मरियम की मूर्ति समझा और पुजारियों के मुख से श्री कृष्ण के नाम को सुनकर उसे क्राइस्ट का अपभ्रंश समझा। गामा ने यह सोचा कि लम्बे समय तक यूरोप से दूर रहने के कारण यहाँ के ईसाईयों ने कुछ स्थानीय रीति रिवाज अपना लिए है। इसलिए ये लोग यूरोप के ईसाईयों से कुछ भिन्न मान्यताओं वाले है। गामा की सोच उसके ईसाईयत के प्रति पूर्वाग्रह से हमें परिचित करवाती है।

राजमहल में गामा का भव्य स्वागत हुआ। उसे 3000 सशस्त्र नायर सैनिकों की टुकड़ी ने अभिवादन दिया। गामा को तब तक विदेशी राजा के राजदूत के रूप में सम्मान मिल रहा था। सलामी के पश्चात गामा को राजा के समक्ष पेश किया गया। जमोरियन राजा हरे रंग के सिंहासन पर विराजमान था। उनके गले में रतनजड़ित हीरे का हार एवं अन्य जवाहरात थे। जो उनकी प्रतिष्ठा को प्रदर्शित करते थे। गामा द्वारा लाये गए उपहार अत्यंत तुच्छ थे। राजा उनसे प्रसन्न नहीं हुआ। फिर भी उसने सोने, हीरे आदि के बदले मसालों के व्यापार की अनुमति दे दी। स्थानीय अरबी व्यापारी राजा के इस अनुमति देने के विरोध में थे। क्यूंकि उनका इससे व्यापार पर एकाधिकार समाप्त हो जाता। गामा अपने जहाज़ से वापिस लौट गया। उसकी इस यात्रा में उसके अनेक समुद्री साथी काल के ग्रास बन गए। उसका पुर्तगाल वापिस पहुंचने पर भव्य स्वागत हुआ। उसने यूरोप और भारत के मध्य समुद्री रास्ते की खोज जो कर ली थी। आधुनिक लेखक उसे भारत की खोज करने वाला लिखते है। भारत तो पहले से ही समृद्ध व्यापारी देश के रूप में संसार भर में प्रसिद्द था। इसलिए यह कथन यूरोपियन लेखक की पक्षपाती मानसिकता को प्रदर्शित करता है।

पुर्तगाल ने अगली समुद्री यात्रा की तैयारी आरम्भ कर दी। इस बार लड़ाकू तोपों से सुसज्जित 13 जहाजों और 1200 सिपाहियों का बड़ा भारत के लिए निकला। कुछ महीनों की यात्रा के पश्चात यह बेड़ा केरल पहुंचा। कालीकट आते ही पुर्तगालियों ने राजा के समक्ष एक नाजायज़ शर्त रख दी कि राजा केवल पुर्तगालियों के साथ व्यापारिक सम्बन्ध रखेंगे। अरबों के साथ किसी भी प्रकार का व्यापार नहीं करेंगे। राजा ने इस शर्त को मानने से इंकार कर दिया। झुंझला कर पुर्तगालियों ने खाड़ी में खड़े एक अरबी जहाज को बंधक बना लिया। अरबी व्यापारियों ने भी पुर्तगालियों की शहर में रुकी टुकड़ी पर हमला बोल दिया। पुर्तगालियों ने बल प्रयोग करते हुए दस अरबी जहाजों को बंधक बना कर उनमें आग लगा दी। इन जहाजों पर काम करने वाले नाविक जिन्दा जल कर मर गए। पुर्तगालियों यहाँ तक नहीं रुके। उन्होंने कालीकट पर अपनी समुद्री तोपों से बमबारी आरम्भ कर दी। यह बमबारी दो दिनों तक चलती रही। कालीकट के राजा को अपना महल छोड़ना पड़ा। यह उनके लिया अत्यंत अपमानजनक था। पुर्तगाली अपने जहाजों को मसालों से भरकर वापिस लौट गए। यह उनका हिन्द महासागर में अपना वर्चस्व स्थापित करने का पहला अभियान था।

गामा को एक अत्याचारी एवं लालची समुद्री लुटेरे के रूप में अपनी पहचान स्थापित करनी थी। इसलिए वह एक बार फिर से आया। इस बार अगले तीन दिनों तक पुर्तगाली अपने जहाजों से कालीकट पर बमबारी करते रहे। खाड़ी में खड़े सभी जहाजों और उनके 800 नाविकों को पुर्तगाली सेना ने बंधक बना लिया। उन बंधकों की पहले जहाजों पर परेड करवाई गई। फिर उनके नाक-कान, बाहें काटकर उन्हें तड़पा तड़पा कर मारा गया। अंत में उनके क्षत-विक्षत शरीरों को नौकाओं में डालकर तट पर भेज दिया गया। ज़मोरियन राजा ने एक ब्राह्मण संदेशवाहक को उसके दो बेटों और भतीजे के साथ सन्धि के लिए भेजा गया। गामा ने उस संदेशवाहक के अंग भंग कर, अपमानित कर उसे राजा के पास वापिस भेज दिया। और उसके बेटों और भतीजे को फांसी से लटका दिया। पुर्तगालियों का यह अत्याचार केवल कालीकट तक नहीं रुका। वे पश्चिमी घाट के अनेक समुद्री व्यापार केंद्रों पर अपना कहर बरपाते हुए गोवा तक चले गए। गोवा में उन्होंने अपना शासन स्थापित किया। यहाँ उनके अत्याचार की एक अलग दास्तान फ्रांसिस ज़ेवियर नामक एक ईसाई पादरी ने लिखी।
पुर्तगालियों का यह अत्याचार केवल लालच के लिए नहीं था। इसका एक कारण उनका अपने आपको श्रेष्ठ सिद्ध करना भी था। इस मानसिकता के पीछे उनका ईसाई और भारतीयों का गैर ईसाई होना भी एक कारण था। इतिहासकार कुछ भी लिखे मगर सत्य यह है कि वास्को दी गामा एक नाविक के भेष में दुर्दांत, अत्याचारी, ईसाई लुटेरा था। खेद है वास्को डी गामा के विषय में स्पष्ट जानकारी होते हुए भी हमारे देश के साम्यवादी इतिहासकार उसका गुणगान कर उसे महान बनाने पर तुले हुए है। इतिहास का यह विकृतिकरण हमें संभवत विश्व के किसी अन्य देश में नहीं मिलेगा।

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Who was Rama – Myth or Historical Hero

Who was Rama – Myth or Historical Hero

The existence of Rama is basically a question of faith for millions of people. Therefore, no government or any other party can deny the existence of Rama. Some of these so-called “great advocates” of Hinduism did not show guts to take on the Government/Karunanidhi, and proved that Rama is as historical fact and not a myth.

Nevertheless, they were supported from unexpected quarters like the Hurriyat conference from Kashmir. Hurriayat also claimed that scientific or historical evidence is not the yardstick to judge various issues related to religion. Hence, whether Rama existed or not cannot be decided on basis of scientific or historical findings. This is basically associated with religious sentiments of millions of people around the world, and therefore the interference of any government or political party is undesired.

As of now, many scientists, based on astronomical data, have propounded that Rama existed around 5044 BC. In such a perplexing situation it becomes very difficult for common masses to arrive at any conclusive view regarding the existence of Rama. Hence, we have to first analyze various facts regarding Rama, and his epic, Ramayana, before arriving on any final verdict.

Maharishi Valmiki, in order to guide the future generations, decided to write a historical epic that can help everyone follow a path of morality and righteousness. He ended up in a dilemma regarding this issue. Later on, he consulted Narada Muni, who in return suggested him to write about Rama, the son of Dasratha, who was born in the clan of Raghu.

Similarly, Mahakavi Kalidas wrote Raghuvansham. This book throws light on the lineage of Raghu, and also states various kings who ruled after Rama. So, now the point of the argument is that if Rama was a mythological character, then how did Valmiki provide the history of Rama’s forefathers?
In Raghuvansham, how did Kalidasa provide details of Rama’s forefathers, and his various Santatis (successors) who ruled after him? In present times various books dealing with stories of Rama are prevalent in India and around the world. We will throw light on this issue in the latter part of this article.

WHEN WAS RAMA BORN: (based on Valmiki`s Ramayana)

One of the most anticipated topics in this modern era is that when was Rama born?
Before dwelling onto this point, we have to understand that our great Maharishies have systematically divided the period of shristi into Manvantars. Each Manvantar is further divided into chaturyugis. Each chaturyugis consist of Krita (satyuga), traita, dwapar, and kaliyuga. The present Manvantar is Vaivast Manvantar. So far, twenty-seven chaturyugies have already been passed. Right now, it is the 28th chaturyugi, and we are still in the first charan (period) of this chaturyugi.
It is a well-known fact that Rama was born during the latter part of traita. Hence, if we assume that Rama was born in the present chaturyugi, then it means that he was born at least 1,000,000 years ago.
The period of his birth will probably be more than this.

However, Vayu purana provides us the correct chronological period of Ramayana. If we take Vayu purana’s period into consideration then the period of Rama becomes at least 18,000,000 years old. Hence, we can easily conclude that the period of Rama in the time scale is at least 1000,000 to 8,000, 000 years. This issue will be resolved in another topic called “Blunders of Indian History”).
This particular view is also supported by the fact that when Hanuman travelled to Shri Lanka in the search of Sita, over there he saw elephants having four teeth. Hence, this is now an issue for archaeologists/biologists to ascertain when did such elephants exist on earth? (The calculations of chaturyugies will be dealt with in another topic called “Age of present shristi”).
The difficulties encountered in establishing chronological correctness of historical events for the period before Christ will be dealt with in the other article called “Blunders of History.” Another interesting fact that has been mentioned in Valmiki’s Ramayana is that the maternal home of Bharat and Shatrughan was in a country where transportations took place in the form of vehicles being propelled by dogs or deers. When the two brothers returned to Ayodhya from their maternal home, they crossed many places covered by snow, and were also dressed up in clothes made of wool. Now, the location in which this episode took place is yet to be ascertained.

According to our logic, this episode took place in Russia, and phonetically Russia sounds like misnomer of a Rishi, but this has been taken care of in our article called “Blunder of Indian/World history”. From the facts mentioned above, it clearly gives us an insight into the period of Rama’s birth. So, those who claim that Rama is only a mythological character have been proven wrong since we have provided them with so much evidence in this article. We will also establish that before the advent of Christianity and Islam, Rama was revered throughout the world as an international cult figure.



The Deccan Herald, on 15th December 1972, on its front page gave the news in which it stated that a
story relating to Ramayana was published in Elista, capital city of Kalmyk, in Russia. The news further stated that various legends of Ramayana were popular among people of Kalmyk. Many versions of Ramayana are already stored in the libraries of Kalmyk. The news clearly stated that legends of Ramayana were extremely popular since time immemorial. Domodin Suren, a Russian writer, has mentioned various legends that were popular among Mongolian and Kalmyk people. Prof C F Glostunky`s manuscript called “Academy of Sciences”, is located at Siberian Branch of Erstwhile, U.S.S.R. This book deals with various legends popular along the Coast of Volga River, and its manuscript is in the Kalmyk language. Last, but not the least, in Leningrad, a great number of books dealing with stories of Ramayana are still available and preserved even today in Russian and Mongolian languages.


In China, a large collection of Jatak stories related to various events of Ramayana, which date back to 251 A.D, were compiled by Kang Seng Hua. Another book from 742 AD, which relates the story of plight of Dasratha after Rama, was ordered to go for Vanvasa is still present in China. Similarly, in 1600 AD, His-Yii-Chii wrote a novel called Kapi (monkey) which elaborated on the stories of Ramayana, predominantly that of Hanuman.


Naresh Kumar Dhatusena also known as Kumardasa, who ruled Sri Lanka in 617 AD, wrote a book called, “Janakiharan”. This is the oldest Sanskrit literature available in Sri Lanka. In Modern Times, C. Don Bostean and John D`Silva have written stories based on Ramayana. Till now, majority of the population adore and highly respect the duo of Rama and Sita.


Today, there are many rock inscriptions belonging to 700 AD, which are located in Khmer region of Cambodia. These rock inscriptions are based on the events of Ramayana. Many temples were constructed during the reign of Khmer dynasty, and currently, their walls depict many scenes and events of Ramayana. The temples of Ankor are very famous for the stories of Ramayana and Mahabharata. These temples belong to the earliest parts of the time period dating back from 400 AD to 700 AD. One astonishing fact in these engraved pictures is that Hanuman and the rest of the other Vanars are not shown with their tails as it is against the popular belief of the masses. (Whether Hanuman was a monkey or not, this issue will be examined later on)


According to De Casperis, there was a temple named “Chandi Loro Jongrong”, which had some scenes of Ramayana engraved on its walls. This temple was from the 9th century AD. In Indonesia, another version of a story from Ramayana named Kakavin is very popular. This story is a bit different from that of Prambanan. Besides this, there were other various versions of Ramayana related stories, which were present in those early centuries after Christ, and also proves itself that Ramayana was very popular among Indonesian people before advent of Islam. It is also an astonishing fact that the first international convention on Ramayana was organized in Indonesia, a few years back.


When local people pronounce Loas in their language, it phonetically sounds like the name of one of the sons of Rama. Besides, the temple of Vat- She-Fum and Vat-Pa-Kev also depict many scenes of Ramayana on their walls. The temples of Vat-Pra-Kev and Vat-Sisket carry books that contain the epic of Ramayana. Lafont, a French traveler translated the story of, “Pa laka-Pa lama” in his book called, “P`ommachak”, in French. This book also deals with the story of Ramayana, which is still popular among the masses of Laos.


The stories of Ramayana are still very popular among the masses. In the early centuries after Christ, many kings who ruled this country had Rama as the prefix or suffix in their name. Just like in India how we organize the play of Ramayana, till today, many dramatic versions of Ramayana are organised in Thailand as well. Similarly, many dramatic versions of Ramayana are still being organized in various South East Asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, and Cambodia.


In Malaysia till today plays are oraganised based on the stories of ‘HIKAYAT SERI RAMA’ ,written in 14 century AD,. Dalang society organize nearly 200-300 plays relating to Ramayana. Before commencement of the play people conduct various prayers and abulations revering RAMA and SITA.


King Kayanjhitha who reigned during 1084 –1112 AD; regarded himself as desecendant of clan of Rama. Various books relating to the stories of Ramayana as earlier as 15 century AD are still found in Burma. Books like ‘Kavyadarsh’ , ‘Subhasit Ratanidhi’ are based on the stories of Ramayana. Zhang-Zhungpa, commentary of Ramayana was written by Taranath, which is not available in modern times. In Burma also various form of plays are conducted based on the stories of Ramayana.


Oldest version of Ramayana, belonging ot 1075 AD is still found in Nepal.


Effect of stories of Ramayana can easily felt in the customs, traditions and legends of majority of masses. Prof Juon R Francisco found that in Marineo Muslims, legend based on Ramayana is popular, in which Rama has been depicted as Incarnation of God. Similarly among Magindanao or Sulu folk Muslims also various legends based on the stories of Ramayana are popular.


In Hyderabad city, capital of Andhra Pradesh, there is museum name Salarjung. There one portrait which is depicting a burly monkey having a very big stone in its hand. This portrait reminds one of Hanuman holding Dronagiri. Similarly Marco Polo in his book (translated by Sir Henry Yule in English) wrote at page no 302, vol II about a peculiar belief among Muslims, spread from Afganistan to Morocco and Algeria. These Muslims believed that members of imperial house of Trebizond were endowed with short tails while mediavel continentals had like stories about Englishmen as- Mathew
Paris relates…. ; .

We are of the belief that if one seriously start investigating various legends prevalent, before advent of Islam and Christianity, in Arabic countries and European countries than existence of Ramayana and Mahabharta can be proved. Due to barbaric and dogmatic acts of these peoples wide range of literature and buildings of historical importance has been wiped out.


In Italy, when excavation were carried out in the remains of Astrocon civilization, then various houses were found having peculiar type of paintings on their wall. These paintaings, on closure investigation, seems to be based on the stories of Ramayana. Some of the paintings shows peculiar persons having tails along with two men bearing bows and arrow on their shoulders, while a lady is standing besides them. These paintings are of 7 century BC. It should be remembered that once Astrocon civilization was spread over 75 pct of Italy.

Sir Henry Yule in his translation of works of Marcopolo has refered to the belief prevalent among Medival Europeans that there Ancestors were having small tails. The same fact has been referred by Maharishi Dayanand in his magnum opus ‘Satyarth Prakash’. There Swamiji state that people of Europe were called as Vanaras(monkeys) ,due to their appreance in our epic like Mahabharta, Valmiki Ramayana etc. If we a analyse this statement in present context, then how we are going to define various statements like kangaroos(Australian team) meet men in blue(Indian team) at Calcutta.
Similar sort of epithets were used during World war to describe armies of different countries or else we see that we have helicopters named cheetah etc. As these words(epithets) are just a way to describe different set of people, arms etc, similarly world like Rakshas, Vanaras etc were used in our legends. These facts clearly indicates that legends of Ramayana are not work of fiction and were very popular around the world .


People of Ethiopia call themselves as descendents of Cushites. This word Cush is basically phonectic misnomer of Kush, the son of Rama. This fact is verly established by Satpath Brahamans, commentary on Vedas. These Brahamans while explaining various mantras of Vedas uses many histrorical events to elucidate the topic.
Astonishingly in Satpath Brahaman we find reference regarding the rule of King Bharata (predecessor of Kaurav and Pandavs) in Rhodesia .
Besides many inconsistent legends inspired by epic of Ramayana are prevalent in African Communities and they basically refers to various activities of vanars.
Egypt basically derives its name from Ajpati which is one of the name of forefather of Rama. If analyse various legends prevalent in Egypt there we will found references of Dasratha(father of Rama). These facts can be very well established from various historical refernces of Brahamans.(for the proof of it see our article Blunders of Indian/World history)


Before Columbus discovered North American continent European people were not knowing about it. However A DE QNATREFAGES in his book, THE HUMAN SPECIES, categorically says that Chinese people were aware about the American continent and the use to have trade relations with them America was referred as Fad-Sang. Similarly in Japanese people it was known as Fad-See. Similarly, if we refer to various historical reference in Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana etc we will find that American continent has been reffered as Patal Desh(Patal means below foot). If we geographically see then we will find that American continent is just below the Indian Subcontinent. We will throw greater light on this issue in our topic, BLUNDERS OF INDIAN HISTORY/WORLD HISTORY.

But for your reference we are providing you some prevalent legends.

a) Beautiful girl in Mexican tribal area till today are called as Ulopy. If we see in Mahabharata we find reference of Arjuna marrying girl named Ulopy who was daughter of King of Patal Desh.

b) W H Prescott in his book , ‘ History of conquest of Mexico’, provides various reference which prove that earlier civilization of American subcontinent have major similarities with that of Indian(Aryan) civilization.

However here we are providing you one reference which clearly state that Ramayana is not mythological epic but it bears historical testimony. According to writer of the book there is popular legend in Aztec community which state that a beautiful person named Quevtsal Katal came there from east and taught them various aspects of advanced civilization as a result his period was treated as golden era. He then went back to his original homeland because of persecution by some divine creature. This legends surprisingly does not throw light on the reasons why he returned.
Another interesting fact that has been stated by Prescott is that this legend is available in documented form. Now, none except Indian tradition can claim that they bear root to this legend. The same story has been narrated in Valmiki Ramayana, in uttarkand where it is mentioned that Salkantak Rakshas who dwelled in Lanka were persecuted by Vishnu. Due to this persecution they left Lanka and went to Patal Desh. The leader of this group was Sumali. According to Ramayana they lived in Patal Desh for long time. When they found condition congenial they returned to their homeland.

It is for readers to decide when such conclusive proof are there to establish that epic of Ramayana is not mythological legend but it is historical evidence which bears testimony to various legends prevalent around the world. Till today play named Ramasitotav is played in various communities of Mexico. To our amazement Rama has been mentioned in Bible, new testament, Mathew ch 2/18, where it is mentioned “ his voices was heard in RAMA”. Rama is proper noun there, now it is for biblical society to define who was Rama and why he has been mentioned in Bible.

Even the name of Dasratha and Ayodhya are there in Bible. We will be referring to these facts in Blunders of Indian/world History.

Now we would pose some tickling questions to the sickular historians:

1) Why month of fasting among muslims is called Ramadhan ?
2) Why place in Gazastrip is called Ramallaha ?
3) Why place in London is named as Ramsgate ?
4) Why capital of Italy is known as Rome(misnomer of Rama)

We can provide various examples where word Rama has been used as suffix or prefix with the names of various historical places/persons or misnomer of Rama has been used as name for historical places/persons. None of the historical evidence provides conclusive answer to these facts unless we take Indian historical evidences into account.
It is widely accepted that the King Alexander invaded India. It really sounds ironical that we are accepting this theory without any historical evidence, on the other hand we go on to deny existence of Rama despite various historical evidences are there to prove that he was not mythical but a historical Mahanayak.

These historians in order to refute Rama`s existence are ridiculously harping the same old tone of theory of evolution which does not have any scientific proof. (Why and how theory of evolution gained importance will be dealt in our article – How the universe is created. The only thing of significance regarding theory of evolution, we want to state here is that it was a tool which was invented to challenge the draconian supremacy of church. The church use to claim that this world was created by God out of nothing and the age of this Universe is not more than 10000 years. By the help of evolutionary theory scientific world challenged the supremacy of church and overcame the clergy.)

This is for readers to decide by themselves how they are going to treat Rama. We think that we have provided lot of food for thought. Those who are illogically biased may still refute the existence of Rama while those who are logical and believe that mythological character can never gain such world wide respect/reverence will start looking upon Rama from wider historical evidences.

Here we want to clarify following points:

1) Rama was a Mahanayak, a legendary person who lived a pristine life and is an example to be emulated till today.

2) Its immaterial whether Ramasetu, on which lot of controversy is being created, was built by Rama so far proving authenticity of Rama is concerned. Regardless of whether they prove Ramsetu to be manmade or natural creation, existence of Ram cannot be denied.

3) Valmiki Ramayana is not fiction but an epic based on historical evidence.
For those who are questioning existence of Rama, let them first justify whether their forefathers ever existed, by using the same yardstick that they are using to question the existence of Rama. At least there are more evidences of Rama being a historical hero than existence of forefathers of these historians.

This article was contributed by Rajveer Arya.

हिन्दुओं की दुर्दशा के लिए कौन जिम्मेदार है?

हिन्दुओं की दुर्दशा के लिए कौन  जिम्मेदार है?

डॉ विवेक आर्य

असाम ब्रह्मपुत्र नदी और घने जंगलों का सुन्दर प्रदेश चिरकाल से हिन्दू राजाओं द्वारा शासित प्रदेश रहा है। असाम में इस्लाम ने सबसे पहले दस्तक बख्तियार खिलजी के रूप में 13 वीं शताब्दी में दी थी। बंगाल पर चढ़ाई करने के बाद खिलजी ने असाम और तिब्बत पर आक्रमण करने का निर्णय किया। अली नामक एक परिवर्तित मुसलमान खिलजी को ब्रह्मपुत्र नदी के किनारे वर्धन कोट/बंगमती नामक स्थान पर ले गया। वहां पर ब्रह्मपुत्र नदी पर एक विशाल पुल बना हुआ था। खिलजी ने उस पुल को पार करते हुए अपने सैनिक उसकी रक्षा में लगा दिए और वह आगे बढ़ गया। अनेक शहरों को लुटते हुए, मंदिरों को मस्जिदों में परिवर्तित करते हुआ खिलजी आसाम में तबाही मचाने लगा। सन् 1243 में असाम के बंगवन और देओकोट के मध्य खिलजी अपनी सेना के साथ डेरा डाले था। आसाम के राजा ने सुनियोजित तरीके से अपनी सेना के साथ आराम करते खिलजी पर सुबह हमला बोल दिया। तीर-भालों की हिन्दू सेना ने दोपहर तक खिलजी की सेना को तहस नहस कर डाला। आक्रमण इतनी तत्परता से किया गया था कि खिलजी अपनी बची खुची सेना के साथ भाग खड़ा हुआ। बचे हुए सैनिक जब वापिस ब्रह्मपुत्र नदी के पुल तक पहुंचे तो उन्होंने पाया कि हिन्दू राजा ने उस पुल को तोड़ दिया था। एक ओर हिन्दू राजा की सेना और दूसरी ओर ब्रह्मपुत्र की विशाल नदी। न खाने को अन्न न लड़ने को शस्त्र। भुखमरी से प्राण निकलने लगे तो अपने ही घोड़ों को खिलजी सैनिक मार कर खाने लगे। इतने में हिन्दू सेना का खेराव बढ़ता गया तो अपनी जान बचाने के लिए बैलों को मार कर खिलजी ने उन्हें पानी में डुबों कर फुलाया। उन फुले हुए बैलों पर बैठकरकिसी प्रकार से  खिलजी अपने प्राण बचाकर असाम से भागा था। उसके बाद हार से बौखलाया हुए खिलजी की हत्या उसी के एक मुसलिम सिपाही ने कर दी थी। हिन्दू राजा की सुनियोजित रणनीति से असाम का इस्लामीकरण होने से बच गया। यह हार शताब्दियों तक मुसलमानों को याद रही थी।

  17 वीं शताब्दी में अज़ान पीर उर्फ़ शाह मीरा के नाम से एक सूफी संत बगदाद से चलकर शिवसागर,असाम पहुंचा। उसका नाम अज़ान इसलिए था क्यूंकि वह सुबह सुबह उठकर अज़ान दिया करता था। वह निजामुद्दीन औलिया के चिश्ती सूफी सम्प्रदाय से था। उसने एक अहोम असमी लड़की से विवाह किया और असाम में बस गया। जब उससे दाल नहीं गली तो उसने एक पुराना सूफी तरीका अपनाया। उसने दो भजन लिखे। इन भजनों  में इस्लामिक शिक्षाओं के साथ साथ असाम के प्रसिद्द संत शंकरदेव की शिक्षाएं भी समाहित कर दी। यह इसलिए किया कि असम के स्थानीय हिन्दुओं को यह लगे कि अजान पीर भी शंकर देव के समान कोई संत है। अज़ान पीर की यह तरकीब कामयाब हो गई। उसके अनेक हिन्दू पहले शिष्य बने फिर बाद में मुसलमान बन गए। उसकी प्रतिष्ठा बढ़ते देख असाम के हिन्दू शासक को किसी ने उसकी शिकायत कर दी कि वह मुगलों का जासूस था। राजा ने अज़ान पीर की दोनों ऑंखें निकाल देने का हुकुम कर दिया। अज़ान पीर की दोनों ऑंखें निकाल दी गई। एक किवदंती उड़ा दी गई कि अजान पीर ने दो मटकों के सामने अपनी चेहरे को किया और उसकी दोनों ऑंखें निकल कर मटके में तैरने लगी। समझदार पाठक आसानी से समझ सकते है कि पूरी दाल ही काली है। इतने में दुर्भाग्य से राजा के साथ कोई दुर्घटना घट गई। किसी धर्मभीरु ने राजा को सलाह  दे दी कि यह दुर्घटना  उस पीर को सताने से हुई है।  हिन्दू समाज की विफलता का सबसे बड़ा कारण यह सलाह देने वाले लोग है  जो सदा हिन्दू राजाओं को या तो अंधविश्वासी बनाने में लगे रहे अथवा अकर्मय बनाने में लगे रहे। असाम के राजा ने पीर को बुलाकर पश्चाताप किया। उसे शिवसागर के समीप भूमि दानकर राजा ने मठ बनाने की अनुमति प्रदान कर दी।

 आखिर इस्लाम को अपनी जड़े ज़माने का असाम में अवसर मिल गया। जो काम पिछले 500 वर्षों में इस्लामिक तलवार नहीं कर पायी वह काम एक सूफी ने कर दिखाया। धीरे धीरे हज़ारों लोगों को इस्लाम में दीक्षित कर अज़ान पीर मर गया। उसकी कब्र एक मज़ार में परिवर्तित हो गई। सालाना उर्स में असाम के हिन्दू मुसलमानों के साथ कंधे से कन्धा मिलाकर अपना माथा उसकी कब्र पर पटकने लगे। आज भी यह क्रम जारी है। जो काम इस्लामिक तलवार न कर सकी वो एक सूफी ने कर दिखाया।

अपने प्राचीन गौरव और संघर्ष को भूलकर मुसलमानों की कब्रों पर सर पटकने वाले हिन्दुओं तुम्हारी बुद्धि का ऐसा नाश क्यों हुआ?

  धर्म क्या है? ईश्वर क्या है? ईश्वर की पूजा कैसे करनी चाहिए? कब्रों को पूजना चाहिए या नहीं। यह आसाम के हिन्दुओं को कौन बतायेगा? उनके लिए तो मंदिर में मूर्तिपूजना और कब्र पूजना एक समान है। इस आध्यात्मिक खोखलेपन और हिन्दुओं की दुर्दशा के लिए कौन  जिम्मेदार है?

 पाठक स्वयं निर्णय करे।

Saturday, April 15, 2017

धर्म और मत में भेद

धर्म और मत में भेद

डॉ विवेक आर्य

धर्म शब्द को लेकर संसार में बहुत भ्रांतियां फैल रही है। यूँ कहिये संसार में धर्म की सत्य परिभाषा को न समझकर मत-मतान्तर की संकीर्ण सोच को धर्म के रूप में चित्रित किया जा रहा है। विश्व में मुख्य रूप से ईसाई, इस्लाम और हिन्दू धर्म प्रचलित है। ईसाई समाज अपने आपको प्रगतिशील मानता है और धर्म के नाम पर प्रलोभन देकर धर्म परिवर्तन करना अपना हक समझता है। अपने इस कृत्य को ईसाई समाज वह धर्म मानता है।मुस्लिम समाज हिंसा और कट्टरवाद के बल पर अपनी संख्या बढ़ाने को आतुर है। उसकी इस सोच के चलते विश्व की शांति पर खतरा मंडरा रहा है। अपने इस कृत्य को मुस्लिम समाज वह धर्म मानता है। हिन्दू समाज अनेक मत-मतान्तरों में विभाजित है। सभी की अपनी अपनी मान्यता अपना अपना विश्वास है। देवी देवताओं की मूर्तियों से लेकर पीरों की कब्रों तक, गुरुओं से लेकर साईं बाबा तक इसके नवनिर्मित अनेक विश्वास के प्रतीक हैं। इन सभी की पूजा करना हिन्दू समाज धर्म समझता है।

                                         प्रत्येक मत अपनी मान्यताओं को सही और दूसरे की मान्यतों को गलत बताता है। इनके इस प्रपंच को देखकर विश्व का एक बड़ा वर्ग अपने आपको नास्तिक कहने लगा है।  वह न तो भगवान को मानता है न ही धर्म की सत्य परिभाषा से परिचित हैं। इस लेख के द्वारा हम धर्म और मत के अंतर को समझने का प्रयास करेंगे।

शंका 1:-  धर्म का अर्थ क्या हैं?


1. धर्म संस्कृत भाषा का शब्द हैं जोकि धारण करने वाली धृ धातु से बना हैं। "धार्यते इति धर्म:" अर्थात जो धारण किया जाये वह धर्म हैं। अथवा लोक परलोक के सुखों की सिद्धि के हेतु सार्वजानिक पवित्र गुणों और कर्मों का धारण व सेवन करना धर्म हैं। दूसरे शब्दों में यहभी कह सकते हैं की मनुष्य जीवन को उच्च व पवित्र बनाने वाली ज्ञानानुकुल जो शुद्ध सार्वजानिक मर्यादा पद्यति हैं वह धर्म है।

2 . जैमिनी मुनि के मीमांसा दर्शन के दूसरे सूत्र में धर्म का लक्षण है- लोक परलोक के सुखों की सिद्धि के हेतु गुणों और कर्मों में प्रवृति की प्रेरणा धर्म का लक्षण कहलाता हैं।

3. वैदिक साहित्य में धर्म वस्तु के स्वाभाविक गुण तथा कर्तव्यों के अर्थों में भी आया हैं। जैसे जलाना और प्रकाश करना अग्नि का धर्म है और प्रजा का पालन और रक्षण राजा का धर्म है।

4. मनु स्मृति में धर्म की परिभाषा

धृति: क्षमा दमोअस्तेयं शोचं इन्द्रिय निग्रह:
धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्म लक्षणं ६/९

अर्थात धैर्य,क्षमा, मन को प्राकृतिक प्रलोभनों में फँसने से रोकना, चोरी त्याग, शौच, इन्द्रिय निग्रह, बुद्धि अथवा ज्ञान, विद्या, सत्य और अक्रोध धर्म के दस लक्षण हैं।

दूसरे स्थान पर कहा हैं आचार:परमो धर्म १/१०८  अर्थात सदाचार परम धर्म हैं

5 . महाभारत में भी लिखा है

धारणाद धर्ममित्याहु:,धर्मो धार्यते प्रजा: अर्थात

जो धारण किया जाये और जिससे प्रजाएँ धारण की हुई है वह धर्म है।

6 . वैशेषिक दर्शन के कर्ता महा मुनि कणाद ने धर्म का लक्षण यह किया है

यतोअभयुद्य निश्रेयस सिद्धि: स धर्म:

अर्थात जिससे अभ्युदय(लोकोन्नति) और निश्रेयस (मोक्ष) की सिद्धि होती है, वह धर्म है।

शंका 2:- स्वामी दयानंद के अनुसार धर्म की क्या परिभाषा है?

उत्तर:- जो पक्ष पात रहित न्याय सत्य का ग्रहण, असत्य का सर्वथा परित्याग रूप आचार है उसी का नाम धर्म और उससे विपरीत का अधर्म है।- सत्यार्थ प्रकाश 3  सम्मुलास

पक्षपात रहित न्याय आचरण सत्य भाषण आदि युक्त जो ईश्वर आज्ञा वेदों से अविरुद्ध है, उसको धर्म मानता हूँ। - सत्यार्थ प्रकाश मंतव्य

इस काम में चाहे कितना भी दारुण दुःख प्राप्त हो , चाहे प्राण भी चले ही जावें, परन्तु इस मनुष्य धर्म से पृथक कभी भी न होवें।- सत्यार्थ प्रकाश

शंका 3:- क्या हिन्दू, मुस्लिम, सिख, ईसाई आदि धर्म सभी समान हैं अथवा भिन्न है? धर्म और मत अथवा पंथ में क्या अंतर हैं?

उत्तर: -हिन्दू, मुस्लिम, सिख, ईसाई आदि धर्म नहीं अपितु मत अथवा पंथ हैं।  धर्म और मत में अनेक भेद हैं।

1.  धर्म ईश्वर प्रदत हैं और जिसे ऊपर बताया गया हैं, बाकि मत मतान्तर हैं जो मनुष्य कृत है।
2. धर्म लोगो को जोड़ता हैं जबकि मत विशेष लोगो में अन्तर को बढ़ाकर दूरियों को बढ़ावा देते है।
3. धर्म का पालन करने से समाज में प्रेम और सोहार्द बढ़ता है, मत विशेष का पालन करने से व्यक्ति अपने मत वाले को मित्र और दूसरे मत वाले को शत्रु मानने लगता है।
4. धर्म क्रियात्मक वस्तु हैं मत विश्वासात्मक वस्तु हैं।
5. धर्म मनुष्य के स्वाभाव के अनुकूल अथवा मानवी प्रकृति का होने के कारण स्वाभाविक है और उसका आधार ईश्वरीय अथवा सृष्टि नियम है परन्तु मत मनुष्य कृत होने से अप्राकृतिक अथवा अस्वाभाविक है।

6. धर्म एक ही हो सकता हैं , मत अनेक होते हैं।

7. धर्म सदाचार रूप हैं अत: धर्मात्मा होने के लिये सदाचारी होना अनिवार्य है। परन्तु मत अथवा पंथ में सदाचारी होना अनिवार्य नहीं है।

8. धर्म ही मनुष्य को मनुष्य बनाता है अथवा धर्म अर्थात धार्मिक गुणों और कर्मों के धारण करने से ही मनुष्य मनुष्यत्व को प्राप्त करके मनुष्य कहलाने का अधिकारी बनता है जबकि मत मनुष्य को केवल पन्थाई या मज़हबी अथवा अन्धविश्वासी बनाता है। दूसरे शब्दों में मत अथवा पंथ पर ईमान लाने से मनुष्य उस मत का अनुयायी बनाता है। नाकि सदाचारी या धर्मात्मा बनता है।

9. धर्म मनुष्य को ईश्वर से सीधा सम्बन्ध जोड़ता है और मोक्ष प्राप्ति निमित धर्मात्मा अथवा सदाचारी बनना अनिवार्य बतलाता है परन्तु मत मुक्ति के लिए व्यक्ति को पन्थाई अथवा मती का मानने वाला बनना अनिवार्य बतलाता है। और मुक्ति के लिए सदाचार से ज्यादा आवश्यक उस मत की मान्यताओं का पालन बतलाता है।
10. धर्म सुखदायक है मत दुखदायक है।
 11. धर्म में बाहर के चिन्हों का कोई स्थान नहीं है क्यूंकि धर्म लिंगात्मक नहीं है -न लिंगम धर्मकारणं अर्थात लिंग (बाहरी चिन्ह) धर्म का कारण नहीं है।  परन्तु मत के लिए बाहरी चिन्हों का रखना अनिवार्य है जैसे एक मुस्लमान के लिए जालीदार टोपी और दाड़ी रखना अनिवार्य है।
12. धर्म दूसरों के हितों की रक्षा के लिए अपने प्राणों की आहुति तक देना सिखाता है जबकि मज़हब अपने हित के लिए अन्य मनुष्यों और पशुयों की प्राण हरने के लिए हिंसा रुपी क़ुरबानी का सन्देश देता है।

 धर्म और मत के अंतर को ठीक प्रकार से समझ लेने पर मनुष्य अपने चिंतन मनन से आसानी से यह स्वीकार करके के श्रेष्ठ कल्याणकारी कार्यों को करने में पुरुषार्थ करना धर्म कहलाता है इसलिए उसके पालन में सभी का कल्याण है।

(आज हिन्दू समाज में भी कुछ लोग प्रचलित अन्धविश्वास एवं निजी मान्यताओं को अन्यों पर थोपने की चेष्टा करते दिखेंगे। उनका प्रयोजन धर्म का प्रचार करना नहीं अपितु अपना निजी मत स्थापित करना अथवा महंत-मठाधीश बनना है। इनसे सावधान रहे।  जनहित में जारी )